The rotator cuff consists of a group of four muscles that reside deep in the shoulder area beneath the bulkier upper arm muscle called the deltoid. The four muscles termed the subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor attach to the top portion of the arm bone called the humerus.
02 Rotator Cuff Tear
The management of rotator cuff tearing is individualized to each patient base on the patient’s current symptoms and future goals. Studies have shown that many patients can achieve satisfactory results and improved shoulder function without surgery even in cases in which the rotator cuff has a full thickness tear.
04 SLAP Tears
Superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) tears are injuries that occur to the labrum at its upper most aspect near the attachment of the biceps tendon. SLAP tears generally occur from chronic overuse and in particular overhead activity and are common in the middle aged and older population. Surgery is often unnecessary in these cases.
06 Biceps Tendon
The biceps tendon is a long cord-like structure that represents the uppermost extension of the long head of the biceps muscle. It rests in a groove at the top of the arm bone (humerus) and is situated between the subscapularis and supraspinatus tendons of the rotator cuff and ultimately attaches to a structure inside the shoulder called the labrum.
Shoulder bursitis refers to inflammation of one of the multiple bursae that reside about the shoulder. A layer or bursa material often referred to as a sac helps to minimize direct contact and friction as muscle and tendon come into close contact with bony structures. In the shoulder this most often involves the subacromial and subdeltoid bursae which can become inflamed as the space between the upper arm (humerus) and the corner of the shoulder blade (acromion) closes down with elevation and some rotation of the arm.
10 Tendinosis / Tendinitis
Many of the problems that occur around the shoulder involved long term damage to the surrounding tendons in the area. Tendons are connective tissue structures that attach muscle to bone and allow the muscles to exert their effect on the skeleton. Most tendon problems occur as a result of aging and normal use though acute injuries can certainly lead to further damage.
12 Shoulder Separation
A shoulder separation occurs when the ligaments that connect the end of the collarbone (clavicle) to the corner of the shoulder blade (acromion) are injured. Depending on the degree of damage to the ligaments the clavicle may show no outward sign of deformity or may become displaced and appear raised relative to the acromion.
Arthritis describes a condition where the cartilage that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint deteriorates, affecting joint function. In the shoulder this can occur in the ball and socket joint (glenohumeral joint) or the joint where the collarbone meets the corner of the shoulder blade (acromioclavicular joint).